Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

BA 497: Business Policy, Strategy, and Ethics (Jean-Denis) Goldman Sachs: Business Sources (Chicago)

This guide will help with your research

Shortened citations and ibid.

Shortened citations:

After you have already cited a source, in subsequent footnotes you should use a shortened version of the citation. In most cases, the last name of the author and the main title of the work cited will be used in the shortened citation.

1 Maureen S. Andrade and Jonathan H. Westover, “Comparative Job Satisfaction and Its Determinants in For-Profit and Nonprofit Employees Across the Globe,” American Journal of Management 20, no.1 (2020): 46-47, https://doi:10.33423/ajm.v20i1.2752.

2 Brislin, Richard, The Undreaded Job: Learning to Thrive in a Less-Than-Perfect Workplace (Westport: ABC-CLIO, 2010), 73-78, ProQuest Ebook Central.

3 Andrade and Westover, “Comparative Job Satisfaction,” 48.

4 Brislin, Undreaded Job, 80.

 

ibid.

Previous versions of the Chicago style have recommended ibid. as an abbreviation for footnotes that cited the same source consecutively. The Chicago manual no longer recommends ibid. and now recommends abbreviated footnotes such as the following:

1 Brislin, Undreaded Job, 80.

2 Brislin, 80.

3 Brislin, 83.

Scholarly articles

Online

N

1. Maureen S. Andrade and Jonathan H. Westover, “Comparative Job Satisfaction and Its Determinants in For-Profit and Nonprofit Employees Across the Globe,” American Journal of Management 20, no.1 (2020): 46-47, https://doi:10.33423/ajm.v20i1.2752.

B:

Andrade, Maureen S., and Jonathan H. Westover. “Comparative Job Satisfaction and Its Determinants in For-Profit and Nonprofit Employees Across the Globe.” American Journal of Management 20, no. 1 (2020): 46–63. https://doi:10.33423/ajm.v20i1.2752.

Print:

N:

1. Robin Bauwens, Mieke Audenaert, and Adelien Decramer, ““Fostering Societal Impact and Job Satisfaction: The Role of Performance Management and Leader–member Exchange,” Public Management Review 21, no. 10 (October): 1486–1515.

B:

Bauwens, Robin, Mieke Audenaert, and Adelien Decramer. “Fostering Societal Impact and Job Satisfaction: The Role of Performance Management and Leader–member Exchange.” Public Management Review 21, no. 10 (October): 1486–1515.

Websites

These guidelines *don't* refer to eBooks and databases from the Pepperdine Libraries. These examples are for free websites. You only provide the date accessed if you can't locate any information about when the document was published/updated.

N:

1. Rakesh Kochhar, “The financial risk to U.S. business owners posed by COVID-19 outbreak varies by demographic group,” Pew Research Center, April 23, 2020, https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2020/04/23/the-financial-risk-to-u-s-business-owners-posed-by-covid-19-outbreak-varies-by-demographic-group/.

B:

Kochhar, Rakesh. “The financial risk to U.S. business owners posed by COVID-19 outbreak varies by demographic group.” Pew Research Center. April 23, 2020. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2020/04/23/the-financial-risk-to-u-s-business-owners-posed-by-covid-19-outbreak-varies-by-demographic-group/.

N:

1. Albertsons Companies, “Sustainability,” Albertsons Companies, accessed August 24, 2020, https://www.albertsonscompanies.com/our-values/sustainability.html.

B:

Albertsons Companies. “Sustainability.” Albertsons Companies. Accessed August 24, 2020. https://www.albertsonscompanies.com/our-values/sustainability.html.

Social Media

Twitter:

1. National Science Foundation (@NSF), “The ancient Japanese art form, origami, may advance products from soft robotics to medical devices to energy harvesters,” Twitter, August 8, 2020, 6:04 a.m., https://twitter.com/NSF/status/1292084156688629761.

B

National Science Foundation (@NSF). “The ancient Japanese art form, origami, may advance products from soft robotics to medical devices to energy harvesters.” Twitter, August 8, 2020, 6:04 a.m. https://twitter.com/NSF/status/1292084156688629761.

Facebook:

N:

1. Coldplay, “Performing at Paralympic Games 2012 with Rihanna, JAY-Z & Paraorchestra was one of our proudest moments,” Facebook, August 20, 2020, https://www.facebook.com/coldplay/posts/10163944397885253.

B:

Coldplay. “Performing at Paralympic Games 2012 with Rihanna, JAY-Z & Paraorchestra was one of our proudest moments.” Facebook, August 20, 2020. https://www.facebook.com/coldplay/posts/10163944397885253.

 

Newspapers

N:

1. Sebastian Herrera, “Amazon Bets on Office-Based Work with Expansion in Major Cities,” The Wall Street Journal, August 18, 2020, Tech, https://www.wsj.com/articles/amazon-bets-on-office-based-work-with-expansion-in-major-cities-11597741203

B:

Deo, Nisha. “Visiting Professor Lectures on Photographer.” The Wall Street Journal. August 18, 2020. https://www.wsj.com/articles/amazon-bets-on-office-based-work-with-expansion-in-major-cities-11597741203.

Entire Books

Print book:

N:

1. Stephen P. Robbins and Tim Judge, Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 14 ed. (New York: Pearson, 2018), 33-35.

B:

Robbins, Stephen P, and Tim Judge. Essentials of Organizational Behavior. 14th ed. New York: Pearson, 2018.

eBook (from library database):

N:

1. Brislin, Richard, The Undreaded Job: Learning to Thrive in a Less-Than-Perfect Workplace (Westport: ABC-CLIO, 2010), 73-78, ProQuest Ebook Central.

B:

Brislin, Richard. The Undreaded Job: Learning to Thrive in a Less-Than-Perfect Workplace. Westport: ABC-CLIO, LLC, 2010. ProQuest Ebook Central.

Google book:

N:

1. Joseph A. Olmstead, Organizational Structure and Climate: Implications for Agencies: National Study of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Workers, Work, and Organizational Contexts (United States: Social and Rehabilitation Service), 23-31, https://www.google.com/books/edition/Organizational_Structure_and_Climate_Imp/wHTZP_2arEAC?hl=en&gbpv=0.

B:

Olmstead, Joseph A. Organizational Structure and Climate: Implications for Agencies: National Study of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Workers, Work, and Organizational Contexts. United States: Social and Rehabilitation Service, 1973. https://www.google.com/books/edition/Organizational_Structure_and_Climate_Imp/wHTZP_2arEAC?hl=en&gbpv=0.

Book chapters

Chapter (single-authored book):

N:

1. John Samples, “The Origins of Modern Campaign Finance Law,” chap. 7 in The Fallacy of Campaign Finance Reform (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006), Kindle.

B:

Samples, John. “The Origins of Modern Campaign Finance Law.” Chap. 7 in The Fallacy of Campaign Finance Reform. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006. Kindle.

N:

1. Kate Andersen Brower, “Backstairs Gossip and Mischief,” in The Residence: Inside the Private World of the White House (New York: Harper, 2015), 211, Kindle.

B:

Brower, Kate Andersen. “Backstairs Gossip and Mischief.” In The Residence: Inside the Private World of the White House, 207–22. New York: Harper, 2015. Kindle.

Book Chapters (with an Editor):

N:

1. Kathleen M. Sutcliffe, “Mindful organizing.” In Organizing for Reliability : A Guide for Research and Practice, edited by Rangaraj Ramanujam and Karlene H Roberts (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2018), 62-63,ProQuest Ebook Central.

B:

Sutcliffe, Kathleen M. “Mindful organizing.” In Organizing for Reliability : A Guide for Research and Practice, edited by Rangaraj Ramanujam and Karlene H Roberts, 61-89. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2018. ProQuest Ebook Central.

Harvard Business Cases

Harvard Business Case (Printed):

N:

1. Jose B. Alvarez and Natalie Kindred, “Impossible Foods,” HBS No. 520-046 (Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing, 2019), 4-5.

B:

Alvarez, Jose B. and Natalie Kindred. “Impossible Foods.” HBS No. 520-046. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing, 2019.

Harvard Business Case (Online):

N:

1. Jose B. Alvarez and Natalie Kindred, “Impossible Foods,” HBS No. 520-046 (Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing, 2019), 4-5, https://hbsp.harvard.edu/.

B:

Alvarez, Jose B. and Natalie Kindred. “Impossible Foods.” HBS No. 520-046. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing, 2019. https://hbsp.harvard.edu/.

SEC Filings and financial data

SEC filing from library database:

N:

1. Albertson Companies Inc., February 29, 2020 Form 10-K (filed May 29, 2020), pp. 19-22, Mergent Online.

B:

Albertson Companies Inc. February 29, 2020 Form 10-K. Filed May 29, 2020. Mergent Online.

N:

1. Albertson Companies Inc., February 29, 2020 Form 10-K (filed May 29, 2020), pp. 19-22, S&P Net Advantage.

B:

Albertson Companies Inc. February 29, 2020 Form 10-K. Filed May 29, 2020. S&P Net Advantage.

SEC filing from a website:

N:

1. Albertson Companies Inc., February 29, 2020 Form 10-K (filed May 29, 2020), pp. 19-22, https://investor.albertsonscompanies.com/.

B:

Albertson Companies Inc. February 29, 2020 Form 10-K. Filed May 29, 2020. https://investor.albertsonscompanies.com/.

Mergent Online financial data:

N:

1. Mergent, “Albertsons Companies Inc. Company Financials: Income Statement 2016-2020,” accessed August 21, 2020, Mergent Online.

B:

Mergent. “Albertsons Companies Inc. Company Financials: Income Statement 2016-2020.” Accessed August 21, 2020. Mergent Online.

N:

1. Mergent, "Albertsons Companies Inc. Ratio Comparison Report with Peers: 2016-2020," accessed August 21, 2020, Mergent Online

B:

Mergent. "Albertsons Companies Inc. Ratio Comparison Report with Peers: 2016-2020." Accessed August 21, 2020. Mergent Online.

S&P Net Advantage online financial data:

N:

1. Standard and Poor's, “Target Corporation Financials: Income Statement 201-72020,” accessed February 22, 2020, S&P Net Advantage.

B:

Standard and Poor’s. “Target Corporation Financials: Income Statement 201-72020.” Accessed February 22, 2020. S&P Net Advantage.

Refinitiv Workspace:

N:

1. Refinitiv, “Nike Inc Financials: Operating Metrics 2016-2020,” accessed March 29, 2021, Refinitiv Workspace.

B:

Refinitiv. “Nike Inc Financials: Operating Metrics 2016-2020.” Accessed March 29, 2021. Refinitiv Workspace.

PrivCo:

N:

1. PrivCo, “Tender Greens,” accessed August 22, 2020, PrivCo.

B:

PrivCo. “Tender Greens.” Accessed August 22, 2020. PrivCo.

Industry reports/Market reports

IBISWorld:

N:

1. Cecilia Fernandez, “Supermarkets & Grocery Stores in the US,” pp. 22-24, May 2020, IBISWorld.

B:

Fernandez, Cecilia. “Supermarkets & Grocery Stores in the US.” May 2020. IBISWorld.

Mintel:

N:

1. John Owen, “Grocery Retailing: Incl Impact of COVID-19 - US - April 2020,” p. 24, April 2020, Mintel.

B:

Owen, John. “Grocery Retailing: Incl Impact of COVID-19 - US - April 2020.” April 2020. Mintel.

Passport:

N:

1. Euromonitor, “Supermarkets in the US,” p. 4, March 2020, Passport.

B:

Euromonitor. “Supermarkets in the US.” March 2020. Passport.

Business Source Premier (MarketLine):

N:

1. MarketLine, “Food Retail in the United States,” pp. 12-17, August 2015, EBSCOhost.

B:

MarketLine. “Food Retail in the United States.” August 2015. EBSCOhost.

S&P Net Advantage:

N:

1. Arun Sundaram and Young, Jia.Y., “U.S. Food. & Staples Retailing,” p. 12, June 2020, S&P Net Advantage.

B:

Sundaram, Arun and Jia Y. Young. “U.S. Food & Staples Retailing.” June 2020. S&P Net Advantage.

Statista:

N:

1. Brick Meets Click, "Sales of grocery delivery and pickup in the United States in August 2019 and March to June 2020 (in billion U.S. dollars),” chart, July 6, 2020, Statista.

B:

Brick Meets Click. "Sales of grocery delivery and pickup in the United States in August 2019 and March to June 2020 (in billion U.S. dollars)." Chart. July 6, 2020. Statista.

SWOT Analysis

Nexis Uni:

N:

1 GlobalData, “Albertson's LLC; GlobalData - SWOT Analysis,” July 12, 2020, Nexis Uni.

B:

GlobalData. “Albertson's LLC; GlobalData - SWOT Analysis.” July 12, 2020. Nexis Uni.

Business Source Premier (MarketLine):

N:

1 MarketLine, “McDonald’s SWOT Analysis,” p. 3, June 19, 2020, EBSCOhost.

B:

MarketLine. “McDonald’s SWOT Analysis.” June 19, 2020. EBSCOhost.

Analyst/Investment Reports

Refinitiv Workspace:

N:

1. John Heinbockel, Steven Forbes, and Stephen Kovalsky, “Albertsons Companies Inc: ACI - BUY - The Refinancing Begins—$47 Million of Savings Worth $0.06 in EPS; Remain BUY,” Guggenheim, August 11, 2020, pp. 4-5, Refinitiv Workspace.

B:

Heinbockel, John, Steven Forbes, and Stephen Kovalsky. “Albertsons Companies Inc: ACI - BUY - The Refinancing Begins—$47 Million of Savings Worth $0.06 in EPS; Remain BUY.” Guggenheim. August 11, 2020. Refinitiv Workspace.

ThomsonONE:

N:

1. John Heinbockel, Steven Forbes, and Stephen Kovalsky, “Albertsons Companies Inc: ACI - BUY - The Refinancing Begins—$47 Million of Savings Worth $0.06 in EPS; Remain BUY,” Guggenheim, August 11, 2020, pp. 4-5, ThomsonONE.

B:

Heinbockel, John, Steven Forbes, and Stephen Kovalsky. “Albertsons Companies Inc: ACI - BUY - The Refinancing Begins—$47 Million of Savings Worth $0.06 in EPS; Remain BUY.” Guggenheim. August 11, 2020. ThomsonONE.

Bloomberg

Company Primer:

N:

1. Lee A. Klaskow and Adam Roszkowski, "FedEx Research," September 15, 2020, pp. 4, Bloomberg LP.

B:

Klaskow, Lee A. and Roszkowski, Adam. "FedEx Research." September 15, 2020. Bloomberg LP.

Industry Primer:

N:

1. Lee A. Klaskow and Adam Roszkowski, "Global Third-Party Logistics 2020 Midyear Outlook," June 29, 2020, pp. 2, Bloomberg LP.

B:

Klaskow, Lee A. and Roszkowski, Adam. "Global Third-Party Logistics 2020 Midyear Outlook." June 29, 2020. Bloomberg LP.

ESG indicators (from the Bloomberg Intelligence dashboard):

N:

1. Bloomberg, "Logistic Services ESG Indicators," accessed October 11, 2020, Bloomberg LP.

B: 

Bloomberg. "Logistic Services ESG Indicators." Accessed October 11, 2020. Bloomberg LP.

Profitability Indicators (from the Bloomberg Intelligence dashboard):

N:

1. Bloomberg, "Restaurants Profitability Indicators," accessed October 11, 2020, Bloomberg LP.

B:

Bloomberg. "Restaurants Profitability Indicators." Accessed October 11, 2020. Bloomberg LP.

Example of specialized metrics (from the Bloomberg Intelligence dashboard):

N:

1. Bloomberg, " Logistics Services: Small Package Indicators," accessed October 11, 2020, Bloomberg LP.

B:

Bloomberg. "Logistics Services: Small Package Indicators." Accessed October 11, 2020. Bloomberg LP.

B:

Financial Analysis:

N:

1. Bloomberg, "FedEx Corp Financial Analysis: Income Statement 2012-2022," accessed October 11, 2020, Bloomberg LP.

B:

Bloomberg. "FedEx Corp Financial Analysis: Income Statement 2012-2022." Accessed October 11, 2020. Bloomberg LP.

Interviews

Unpublished interviews are usually only in the footnotes and rarely mentioned in the bibliography. For more information, see the official Chicago Style guide.

N:

1. Jorge Rodriguez (scientist, Amgen Inc. in Thousand Oaks, CA), in discussion with the author, April 2021.

B:

Rodriguez, Jorge (scientist, Amgen Inc. in Thousand Oaks, CA). Discussion with author. April, 2021.

Simmons

N:

1. Simmons MRI, "Uber Mobile Individual Apps Used 30 Day," 2020, Simmons Brand Catalyst.

B:

Simmons MRI. "Uber Mobile Individual Apps Used 30 Day." 2020. Simmons Brand Catalyst.