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Business & Economics

This guide will introduce business and economics resources available to Pepperdine University students.

APA Examples

Sample Article Citations

Scholarly article with a Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Andrade, M.S. & Westover, J.H. (2020). Comparative job satisfaction and its determinants in for-profit and nonprofit employees across the globe. American Journal of Management, 20 (1) 46-63. https://doi:10.33423/ajm.v20i1.2752.

Scholarly article Without a DOI:

Haeffele, S., & Storr, V. H. (2019). Hierarchical management structures and housing the poor: An analysis of Habitat for Humanity in Birmingham, Alabama. Journal of Private Enterprise, 34(1), 15-37.

Sample Industry/Market Research Report/Demographic Citations


Owen, J. (2020, April). Grocery retailing: Incl impact of COVID-19 - US - April 2020. Mintel.


Fernandez, C. (2020, May). Supermarkets & grocery stores in the US. IBISWorld.


Euromonitor (2020, March). Supermarkets in the US. Passport.

S&P Net Advantage:

Sundaram, A. & Young, J.Y. (2020, June). U.S. Food & Staples Retailing. S&P Net Advantage.


Williamson, D.A. (2020, June). US social media usage: How the Coronavirus is changing consumer behavior. eMarketer.


Public Religion Research. (2020, September). Religious affiliation in the United States 2017, by age. Statista.


Sheridan, E.J., Steiger, A., Miller, B.,  Czura, L., Vegliante, A., Lin, C. & McKennon, M. (2021, January 24). US Internet & Interactive Entertainment Assessing the Consumer Usage & Ad Engagement Landscape (13th Ed.). UBS. Refinitiv.

Refinitiv (n.d.). Netflix Inc  financials: Operating metrics 2007-2021. Retrieved February 9, 2021 from

Refintiv (n.d.). Netflix Inc. peers & valuation: value chain. Retrieved February 9, 2021 from

Simmons Insights/Simmons Brand Catalyst:

Name of Organization. (Year). Title of study [Data set description] [Data set]. URL

MRI-Simmons. (2017). Spring 2017 NHCS adult study 12 month [Cell phones / smartphones brands owned by consumer demographics - age,

gender, household income] [Data set].

SRDS Claritas 360 Reports:

Citation Example: Graphs

Name of Organization. (Year). Title of graph. Source Title. Retrieval date from URL

Claritas. (2020). Households by income: 61820. Claritas Pop-Facts Demographics 2020. Retrieved October 11, 2020, from

Citation Example: Segment Description

Name of Organization. (Year). Title of segment/statistics. Source Title. Retreival date from URL

Claritas. (2020). 47 striving selfies demographic traits. Claritas 360. Retrieved October 11, 2020, from

Sample Financial Data/SEC Filing Citations

SEC Filing from a library database:

Albertson Companies Inc. (2020, February 29). Form 10-K. Mergent Online.

SEC Filing from a website:

Albertson Companies Inc. (2020, February 29). Form 10-K.

Mergent Online Financial data

Mergent (n.d.). Albertsons Companies Inc. company financials: income statement 2016-2020. Retrieved August 21, 2020 from

S&P Net Advantage Financial Data:

Standard & Poor's (n.d.). Netflix Inc. fixed income: Securities summary. Retrieved February 9, 2022 from

Standard & Poors (n.d.). Netflix Inc, financials: Income statement: 2017-201. Retrieved February 9, 2022 from

Sample Book Citations

eBook from Library Databases:

For eBooks, the database is not required. 

Wagner, T. (2020). Music, branding, and consumer culture in church : Hillsong in focus. Routledge.

Seemiller, C., & Grace, M. (2019). Generation Z: a century in the making. Routledge.

Book Chapter:

Renz, D.O. (2016). Leadership, governance, and the work of the board.  In D.O. Renz & R.D. Herman (Eds.), The Jossey-Bass handbook of nonprofit leadership and management (pp. 127-166). Josey Bass. https://10.1002/9781119176558