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Business & Economics

This guide will introduce business and economics resources available to Pepperdine University students.

APA Style

Sample Article Citations

Scholarly article with a Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Andrade, M.S. & Westover, J.H. (2020). Comparative job satisfaction and its determinants in for-profit and nonprofit employees across the

globe. American Journal of Management, 20 (1) 46-63. https://doi:10.33423/ajm.v20i1.2752.

Scholarly article Without a DOI:

Haeffele, S., & Storr, V. H. (2019). Hierarchical management structures and housing the poor: An analysis of Habitat for Humanity in Birmingham,

Alabama. Journal of Private Enterprise, 34(1), 15-37.

Sample Industry/Market Research Report/Demographic Citations


Owen, J. (2020, April). Grocery retailing: Incl impact of COVID-19 - US. Mintel.


Fernandez, C. (2020, May). Supermarkets & grocery stores in the US. IBISWorld.


Euromonitor. (2020, March). Supermarkets in the US. Passport.


PrivCo. (n.d.). Whimstay, Inc. company profile: Financials, valuation, and growth. Retrieved April 14, 2023, from

S&P Net Advantage:

Sundaram, A. & Young, J.Y. (2020, June). U.S. Food & Staples Retailing. S&P Net Advantage.

Insider Intelligence:

Williamson, D.A. (2020, June). US social media usage: How the Coronavirus is changing consumer behavior. eMarketer.


Public Religion Research. (2020, September). Religious affiliation in the United States 2017, by age [Graph]. Statista.


Sheridan, E.J., Steiger, A., Miller, B.,  Czura, L., Vegliante, A., Lin, C. & McKennon, M. (2021, January 24). US Internet & Interactive Entertainment Assessing the Consumer Usage & Ad Engagement Landscape (13th Ed.). UBS. Refinitiv.

Refinitiv (n.d.). Netflix Inc  financials: Operating metrics 2007-2021. Retrieved February 9, 2021 from

Refintiv (n.d.). Netflix Inc. peers & valuation: value chain. Retrieved February 9, 2021 from

Simmons Insights (Crosstab):

Name of Organization. (Year). Title of study [Data set description] [Data set]. URL

MRI-Simmons. (2017). Spring 2017 NHCS adult study 12 month [Cell phones / smartphones brands owned by consumer demographics - age,

gender, household income] [Data set].

Simmons Brand Catalyst:

Name of Organization. (Year). Title of study [Profile variables] [Segmentation profile]. URL

MRI-Simmons. (2020). Spring 2020 NHCS adult study 12 month [Male 18-34] [Segmentation profile].


Name of Organization. (Year). Study Source [Data set description] [Data set]. URL

DemographicsNow. (2023). Experian [Average expenditure: Cash contributions to charities, church, religious, educational, political and other organizations / housing units by percent: tenure % owner-occupied:  Malibu (Place)] [Data set].

SRDS Claritas 360 Reports:

Citation Example: Graphs

Name of Organization. (Year). Title of graph. Source Title. Retrieval date from URL

Claritas. (2020). Households by income: 61820. Claritas Pop-Facts Demographics 2020. Retrieved October 11, 2020, from

Citation Example: Segment Description

Name of Organization. (Year). Title of segment/statistics. Source Title. Retreival date from URL

Claritas. (2020). 47 striving selfies demographic traits. Claritas 360. Retrieved October 11, 2020, from

Sample Financial Data/SEC Filing Citations

SEC Filing from a library database:

Albertson Companies Inc. (2020, February 29). Form 10-K. Mergent Online.

SEC Filing from a website:

Albertson Companies Inc. (2020, February 29). Form 10-K.

Mergent Online Financial data

Mergent, Inc. (n.d.). Albertsons Companies Inc. company financials: income statement 2016-2020. Retrieved August 21, 2020


S&P Net Advantage Financial Data:

Standard & Poor's. (n.d.). Netflix Inc. fixed income: Securities summary. Retrieved February 9, 2022 from

Standard & Poor's. (n.d.). Netflix Inc, financials: Income statement: 2017-201. Retrieved February 9, 2022 from

Generative AI Citations

In APA 7th edition Format:

Based on APA Style guidance.

Outline of an APA Citation for AI
       Name of Company/creator of generative AI Tool. (Year). Name of generative AI tool (Month Date version) [Large language model]. URL.

Real World Example:

       OpenAI. (2023). ChatGPT (June 16 version) [Large language model].

The full transcript of a response can be included in an appendix or other supplementary materials.

In Chicago 17th edition Format:

Footnote or Endnote:

OpenAI's ChatGPT, response to query from author, February 15, 2023.

Bibliographic Reference:

Author’s (Parent Company) Medium, Response to “Query in quotes.” Name of Website, Parent Company, Date accessed, URL.

OpenAI’s ChatGPT, Response to “Explain to general audiences the possible causes and effects of climate change.” ChatGPT, OpenAI, February

15, 2023,

In MLA 9th edition Format:

Guidance based on How do I cite generative AI in MLA style? from the official style website.

Outline of an MLA Citation for AI
Author/Creator. "Name of chatbot." Title of platform where accessed, Full URL, Date Accessed (optional).

Real World Example:
OpenAI. "ChatGPT." ChatGPT Pro,, February 2, 2023.

Sample Book Citations

eBook from Library Databases:

For eBooks, the database is not required. 

Wagner, T. (2020). Music, branding, and consumer culture in church : Hillsong in focus. Routledge.

Seemiller, C., & Grace, M. (2019). Generation Z: a century in the making. Routledge.

Book Chapter:

Renz, D.O. (2016). Leadership, governance, and the work of the board.  In D.O. Renz & R.D. Herman (Eds.), The Jossey-Bass handbook of

nonprofit leadership and management (pp. 127-166). Josey Bass. https://10.1002/9781119176558