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InfoGuides | Pepperdine Libraries

Music: Use Info Effectively & Ethically

This guide will introduce music resources available to Pepperdine University students.

Citation Styles

Citation styles can be difficult to learn.

Here are links to guides for some of the most popular style guides.

MLA (8th ed.)

APA

Chicago Manual of Style

Turabian Guide for Writers

These Guides are from OWL, the Purdue Online Writing Lab.

"Bibliographic Citations" - help from the Cook Music Library at the Indiana University School of Music

Chicago Style Citation

Chicago Style

Pepperdine University Libraries subscribe to the Chicago Manual of Style Online

The Chicago Manual of Style (CMS) covers a variety of topics from manuscript preparation and publication to grammar, usage, and documentation. There are two CMS documentation styles: the Notes-Bibliography System (NB), which is used by those in literature, history, and the arts and the Author-Date System, is nearly identical in content but slightly different in form and is preferred in the social/sciences.

In addition to consulting the The Chicago Manual of Style (16th ed.) for more information, students may also find it useful to consult Kate L. Turabian's Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations  (8th ed.). This manual, which presents what is commonly known as the "Turabian" citation style, follows the two CMS patterns of documentation but offers slight modifications suited to student texts.

The proper use of the Chicago NB system can protect writers from accusations of plagiarism, which is the intentional or accidental uncredited use of source material created by others. Most importantly, properly using the NB system builds credibility by demonstrating accountability to source material.

In the NB system, you should include a note (endnote or footnote) each time you use a source, whether through a direct quote or through a paraphrase or summary. Footnotes will be added at the end of the page on which the source is referenced, and endnotes will be compiled at the end of each chapter or at the end of the entire document.  In either case, a superscript number corresponding to a note with the bibliographic information for that source should be placed in the text following the end of the sentence or clause in which the source is referenced.

In the NB system, the bibliography provides an alphabetical list of all sources used in a given work. This page, most often titled Bibliography, is usually placed at the end of the work preceding the index. It should include all sources cited within the work and may sometimes include other relevant sources that were not cited but provide further reading.

Excepted from Purdue Owl Chicago Manual of Style 16th Edition. Contributors:Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee
Last Edited: 2014-02-07 11:51:52 https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/01/

    MLA Information

    MLA

    MLA (Modern Language Association) style specifies guidelines for formatting manuscripts and using the English language in writing. MLA style also provides writers with a system for referencing their sources through parenthetical citation in their essays and Works Cited pages.

    • As with any citation stystem using it correctly protects the writer from accusations of plagiarism. As mentioned earlier in this guide proper citation builds credibility to the paper by demonstrating accountability to source material.

      If you are asked to use MLA format, be sure to consult the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th edition).

    Here are some links that will help you cite sources in MLA:

    MLA instructions from Purdue's Online Writing Lab (OWL)

    Online Citation Generators

    TIP! Save time and avoid plagiarism--cite correctly and easily with APA, MLA or Chicago style!

     

    Best Practices for Avoiding Plagiarism

    There are many ways to avoid plagiarism, including developing good research habits, good time management, and taking responsibility for your own learning. Here are some specific tips:

    • Don't procrastinate with your research and assignments.
      Good research takes time. Procrastinating makes it likely you'll run out of time or be unduly pressured to finish. This sort of pressure can often lead to sloppy research habits and bad decisions. Plan your research well in advance, and seek help when needed from your professor, from librarians and other campus support staff.
    • Commit to doing your own work.
      If you don't understand an assignment, talk with your professor. Don't take the "easy way" out by asking your roommate or friends for copies of old assignments. A different aspect of this is group work. Group projects are very popular in some classes on campus, but not all. Make sure you clearly understand when your professor says it's okay to work with others on assignments and submit group work on assignments, versus when assignments and papers need to represent your own work.
    •  Be 100% scrupulous in your note taking.
      As you prepare your paper or research, and as you begin drafting your paper. One good practice is to clearly label in your notes your own ideas (write "ME" in parentheses) and ideas and words from others (write "SMITH, 2005" or something to indicate author, source, source date). Keep good records of the sources you consult, and the ideas you take from them. If you're writing a paper, you'll need this information for your bibliographies or references cited list anyway, so you'll benefit from good organization from the beginning.
    • Cite your sources scrupulously.
      Always cite other people's work, words, ideas and phrases that you use directly or indirectly in your paper. Regardless of whether you found the information in a book, article, or website, and whether it's text, a graphic, an illustration, chart or table, you need to cite it. When you use words or phrases from other sources, these need to be in quotes. Current style manuals, available at the Parks Library Help & Information desk, will help you use a consistent means of citation. They may also give further advice on avoiding plagiarism.
    • Understand good paraphrasing.
      Simply using synonyms or scrambling an author's words and phrases and then using these "rewrites" uncredited in your work is plagiarism, plain and simple. Good paraphrasing requires that you genuinely understand the original source, that you are genuinely using your own words to summarize a point or concept, and that you insert in quotes any unique words or phrases you use from the original source. Good paraphrasing also requires that you cite the original source. Anything less and you veer into the dangerous territory of plagiarism.