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GSHU 199 FYS History of Baseball (Hunnicutt)

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Citation Styles

Citation styles can be difficult to learn.

Here are links to guides for some of the most popular style guides.



Chicago Manual of Style

Turabian Guide for Writers

These Guides are from OWL, the Purdue Online Writing Lab.

What is MLA?


MLA (Modern Language Association) style specifies guidelines for formatting manuscripts and using the English language in writing. MLA style also provides writers with a system for referencing their sources through parenthetical citation in their essays and Works Cited pages.

  • As with any citation stystem using it correctly protects the writer from accusations of plagiarism. As mentioned earlier in this guide proper citation builds credibility to the paper by demonstrating accountability to source material.

    If you are asked to use MLA format, be sure to consult the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th edition). Publishing scholars and graduate students should also consult the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd edition).

Descriptions for Style Guide (MLA)
Seas, K., & Brizee, A. (2010, November 1, 2010). General format. Retrieved from

Best Practices for Avoiding Plagiarism

There are many ways to avoid plagiarism, including developing good research habits, good time management, and taking responsibility for your own learning. Here are some specific tips:

  • Don't procrastinate with your research and assignments.
    Good research takes time. Procrastinating makes it likely you'll run out of time or be unduly pressured to finish. This sort of pressure can often lead to sloppy research habits and bad decisions. Plan your research well in advance, and seek help when needed from your professor, from librarians and other campus support staff.
  • Commit to doing your own work.
    If you don't understand an assignment, talk with your professor. Don't take the "easy way" out by asking your roommate or friends for copies of old assignments. A different aspect of this is group work. Group projects are very popular in some classes on campus, but not all. Make sure you clearly understand when your professor says it's okay to work with others on assignments and submit group work on assignments, versus when assignments and papers need to represent your own work.
  •  Be 100% scrupulous in your note taking.
    As you prepare your paper or research, and as you begin drafting your paper. One good practice is to clearly label in your notes your own ideas (write "ME" in parentheses) and ideas and words from others (write "SMITH, 2005" or something to indicate author, source, source date). Keep good records of the sources you consult, and the ideas you take from them. If you're writing a paper, you'll need this information for your bibliographies or references cited list anyway, so you'll benefit from good organization from the beginning.
  • Cite your sources scrupulously.
    Always cite other people's work, words, ideas and phrases that you use directly or indirectly in your paper. Regardless of whether you found the information in a book, article, or website, and whether it's text, a graphic, an illustration, chart or table, you need to cite it. When you use words or phrases from other sources, these need to be in quotes.
  • Understand good paraphrasing.
    Simply using synonyms or scrambling an author's words and phrases and then using these "rewrites" uncredited in your work is plagiarism, plain and simple. Good paraphrasing requires that you genuinely understand the original source, that you are genuinely using your own words to summarize a point or concept, and that you insert in quotes any unique words or phrases you use from the original source. Good paraphrasing also requires that you cite the original source. Anything less and you veer into the dangerous territory of plagiarism.

For more information visit the Seaver College's Academic Integrity Policies.

Sample Chicago Style paper

The OWL Purdue Chicago Stye website has a sample research paper in Chicago Style.

Footnotes: shortened versions of citations that appear at the bottom of each page

Bibliography: more complete citations that. appear at the end of the paper. The sources are listed alphabetically by the author's last name.

Difference between footnotes and bibliography entries

Footnotes: shortened versions of citations that appear at the bottom of each page

  • Use commas to separate authors, document titles, publication titles, dates, URL's, etc.
  • With personal authors, the format is first name last name.
  • Pages numbers (when available should be included).

Bibliography: more complete citations that. appear at the end of the paper. The sources are listed alphabetically by the author's last name.

  • Uses periods to separate authors, titles, dates, URLs, etc.
  • With personal authors, the format is last name, first name

Paraphrasing, summarizing and direct quotes

ALWAYS include a footnote every time you incorporate a source into your paper. If you paraphrased, summarized or used a direct quote, it's necessary to cite the source.

Generally, you should paraphrase the majority of sources and only use direct quotes when the author used a particularly eloquent or powerful phrase.

Example of citing direct quotes less than 100 words:

In a study of job satisfaction, Andrade and Westover concluded “managers should consider how to encourage motivation as well as enhance work-life balance and work relations in order to realize the benefits of a satisfied workforce.”7

 Block quotes (for citations over 100 words):

This example is for illustrative purposes and there are very few instances that you should include direct quotes of over 100 words. In these situations use "blocked" quotes that are indented.

...there were many issues that resulted in job satisfaction for employees in nonprofit organizations and work-life balance was an important factor.

In reporting the results of their study, Andrade and Westover eloquently explained:

Generally speaking, nonprofit job roles may not be specifically designed to encourage intrinsic motivation. Rather the features that promote this motivation such as job meaningfulness, autonomy, connectedness, decision-making, organizational mission, and professional management practices are typically embedded in the culture of nonprofits. Historical, cultural, and contextual issues indicate varied practices in this area and comparative salary studies have dissimilar findings. Managers in nonprofits should be aware of factors that support intrinsic motivation and ensure that these characteristics are maintained or enhanced so that employees will continue to enjoy and value their work. Managers should also consider that education-job fit is important to recruiting for nonprofits while stress and overwork must be addressed in terms of employee well-being. 8

Shortened citations and ibid.

Shortened citations:

After you have already cited a source, in subsequent footnotes you should use a shortened version of the citation. In most cases, the last name of the author and the main title of the work cited will be used in the shortened citation.

1 Maureen S. Andrade and Jonathan H. Westover, “Comparative Job Satisfaction and Its Determinants in For-Profit and Nonprofit Employees Across the Globe,” American Journal of Management 20, no.1 (2020): 46-47, https://doi:10.33423/ajm.v20i1.2752.

2 Brislin, Richard, The Undreaded Job: Learning to Thrive in a Less-Than-Perfect Workplace (Westport: ABC-CLIO, 2010), 73-78, ProQuest Ebook Central.

3 Andrade and Westover, “Comparative Job Satisfaction,” 48.

4 Brislin, Undreaded Job, 80.


Previous versions of the Chicago style have recommended ibid. as an abbreviation for footnotes that cited the same source consecutively. The Chicago manual no longer recommends ibid. and now recommends abbreviated footnotes such as the following:

1 Brislin, Undreaded Job, 80.

2 Brislin, 80.

3 Brislin, 83.

Citing newspapers and magazines in Chicago Style

Online Newspapers:


          1. Adie Suehsdorf, "Sluggers in Skirts: Girls of the All-American Circuit Hit, Run and Field like Major-Leaguers--and They're Much Prettier...," Los Angeles Times, July 31, 1949, ProQuest Historical Newspapers: Los Angeles Times.


Suehsdorf, Adie. "Sluggers in Skirts: Girls of the All-American Circuit Hit, Run and Field like Major-Leaguers--and They're Much Prettier..." Los Angeles Times. July 31, 1949. ProQuest Historical Newspapers: Los Angeles Times.


1.  Arthur Daley, "Sports of The Times; The Irrepressible Minnie Second Thoughts Man in Debt Head on the Plate," New York Times, April 22, 1962,


Daley, Arthur. "Sports of The Times; The Irrepressible Minnie Second Thoughts Man in Debt Head on the Plate." New York Times. April 22, 1962,

Magazine Articles (either print or a scanned pdf version requested by interlibrary loan)


             1. Sylvia B. Lyons, "She Made the Team," Reader's Digest, June, 1949, 44.


Lyons, Sylvia B. "She Made the Team." Reader's Digest. June, 1949.