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Citation Info & Tools

Your guide to APA, Chicago, MLA citation styles

Purdue Online Writing Lab

Logo for Purdue Online Writing Lab

The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue. Students, members of the community, and users worldwide are welcome to use OWL for information to assist with writing projects. 

OWL has extensive examples, explanations and tutorials on all citation styles, including APA, MLA and Chicago.  If you have a citation question, it's almost certain you'll find your answer on OWL.

Presentation Citations

Verbal Citations

Verbal Citations add credibility to your speeches and properly give credit to others for their work and ideas.  Mentioning ideas and facts that are not your own within your speech, without verbally citing them, is plagiarism.

Creating a Verbal Citation:

Verbal Citations shouldn't interrupt the flow of your speech.  Use an introductory phrase and keep them brief but include the important "who, what, when" details:

  • author name
  • author credentials
  • title of work (article, book, report, etc.)
  • date of work (if relevant)
Verbal Citation Examples:

"According to Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences president, Jim Bailey, ..."

"In 2014, Maureen Russell, an ethnomusicologist at UCLA, wrote ..."

Slide Citations

To cite your sources within a PowerPoint or Google Slides presentation, you should include your references or in-text citations on each slide.  In-text citations for slides are formatted the same way as in research papers.

You can also provide citations during your presentation verbally, by providing a reference list slide at the end of your presentation with corresponding in-text citations or combining verbal and written citations.

For any presentation, be sure your audience knows where the information, visuals, and other materials you use are from. Remember to double-check the assignment requirements and your instructor’s preferences.

Reference Slide Format

Reference Slides are formatted the same way as Reference Pages with a few minor differences:

  • Center References on the final slide.
  • Single space the entries.
  • Do not use a hanging indent.

APA Citation Manual

APA style logo  For APA questions, check out the APA FAQ on the APA Style Blog.

Chicago Citation Manual

MLA Citation Manual

Citation Management Systems

 

Citation Management System (CMS): A tool that allows you to collect and organize articles, generate citations, and compile works cited/bibliography. Endnote  Mendeley Zotero
Product name EndNote Basic/Online   Mendeley Reference Manager (MRM) Zotero
Where to get it   https://endnote.com/  https://www.mendeley.com/  https://www.zotero.org/
Costs  Free (for Basic only) Free up-front (cost to upgrade storage) Free up-front (cost to upgrade storage)
Main access (web/cloud or desktop/laptop)  Web/cloud only  Desktop/Laptop and web/cloud. Can sync with multiple computers.  Desktop/laptop and web/cloud. Can sync with multiple computers. 
Registration/account required? Yes  Yes  Only for cloud sync and collaborator sharing. Can use locally without an account. 
Manuals, How-to, Tutorials, FAQ Yes Yes  Yes
Reference Management Features       
Storage (references and file attachments)  50,000 references or 2GB Unlimited on local computer, 2GB in cloud (can pay to upgrade) Unlimited on local computer, 300MB in cloud (can pay to upgrade)
Reference import methods  Manual
RIS file
Direct from many databases       PubMed                                       OCLC (library Catalog) 
Manual
RIS file
Direct from some Elsevier databases
PDF drag & drop
Identifier (e.g., DOI)
Manual
RIS file
PDF drag & drop
Identifier (e.g., DOI, ISBN)
Exporting records  Yes, but doesn't transfer attachments Yes, in desktop version, but doesn't transfer attachments Yes, but doesn't transfer attachments
Browser/Web importer *         Endnote Click- full text articles and documents                           Capture- Websites, etc.                       
-Chrome
​​​​​-Firefox
-Safari (?) 
Mendeley Web Importer- webpages, Documents, etc.
-Chrome
-Firefox
-Edge
Zotero Connector
-Chrome
-​​​​​Firefox
-Safari
-Edge
* Browser/Web Importer:(add-on/feature) that allows you to upload papers, web pages and other documents (not just the citations) into the CMS. This is helpful if you want to review the articles you cited. It also means that the CMS can be used to store and organize your research in one place; CMS are not just for organizing citations.
PDF Annotations * Yes  Yes  Yes 
* PDF Annotation: You're able to highlight and take notes on imported pdfs
Control overall organizing citation projects  Yes  Yes  yes 
Collaboration tools * Yes  Yes  Yes
* Collaboration Tools: Allow you to share citations and uploaded documents with co-authors and/or groups who are also able to add content to share with co-authors.
Write & Cite/Citation Plug-in * Yes                                           Yes  Yes 
 
*Write & Cite: (add-on/feature) that allows you to directly impute “in-text” citations into your documents.
Compatible with ... Microsoft Word                                   Macintosh Pages  Word
LibreOffice (not Google Docs)
Word                               LibreOffice                              Google Docs
Citation Generation Feature  yes  yes  yes 
Name of CG tool  NA Mendeley Cite  NA
Compatible with ... Word
LibreOffice (not Google Docs)
Word
LibreOffice (not Google Docs)
Windows Word
Macintosh Word
LibreOffice
Google Docs (automatically installed with Zotero Connector plugin)
Special Features       
Pros & Cons      
Pros:
  •  Compatible with Windows 7 or later, Mac OS, Linux
  • Mobile version available with iOS only.
  • Can share EndNote data with other EndNote users.

 

 

 

 

 

  •  Compatible with Windows 7 or later, Mac OS, Linux
  • Can work from multiple computers
  • Can create public and private groups to share data.

 

 

 

 

 

  •   Compatible with Windows 7 or later, Mac OS or later including Catalina and Big Sur 1, Linux, Chromebook
  • Mobile version available in Beta or through 3rd party options
  • Can create public and private groups to share data.

 

Cons:
  •  Mobile version not available with Android OS
  • Citation storage is limited.

 

 

 

 

  •  Can not use with Mac OS 11 Big Sur
  • Mobile version not available
  • Additional storage upgrade requires purchase.

 

 

 

  •  Zotero Chrome extension may interfere with proxy settings.
  • Zotero is primarily a desktop application that requires you to download the program.
  • Additional storage upgrade requires purchase.