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Citation Info & Tools

Your guide to APA, Chicago, MLA citation styles

Purdue Online Writing Lab

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The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue. Students, members of the community, and users worldwide are welcome to use OWL for information to assist with writing projects. 

OWL has extensive examples, explanations and tutorials on all citation styles, including APA, MLA and Chicago.  If you have a citation question, it's almost certain you'll find your answer on OWL.

APA Citation Manual

For APA questions, check out the APA FAQ on the APA Style Blog or the APA cheat sheet from the University of Calgary.

Chicago Citation Manual

MLA Citation Manual

Check out the MLA Style Center for FAQ, sample papers and research help.

Harvard Style Resources

* Harvard Format is very similar to the Author-Date version of Chicago Style.

(Fun fact: The "Harvard System" or "Harvard Style" has no affliation with Harvard University.)

IEEE Citation Resources

SBL Citations

The SBL (Society of Biblical Literature) Handbook of Style is intended to assist those writing on Near Eastern studies, biblical studies, and early Christianity. It is based on the Chicago Manual of Style, and covers citation questions specific to writing in these fields that are not covered in other style handbooks.

The SBL Handbook of Style is available as an e-book and in the reference section of Payson Library. The call number is Ref PN147 .S26 200.

The Student Supplement for The SBL Handbook of Style is available as a PDF. 

Presentation Citations

Verbal Citations

Verbal Citations add credibility to your speeches and properly give credit to others for their work and ideas.  Mentioning ideas and facts that are not your own within your speech, without verbally citing them, is plagiarism.

Creating a Verbal Citation:

Verbal Citations shouldn't interrupt the flow of your speech.  Use an introductory phrase and keep them brief but include the important "who, what, when" details:

  • author name
  • author credentials
  • title of work (article, book, report, etc.)
  • date of work (if relevant)
Verbal Citation Examples:

"According to Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences president, Jim Bailey, ..."

"In 2014, Maureen Russell, an ethnomusicologist at UCLA, wrote ..."

Slide Citations

To cite your sources within a PowerPoint or Google Slides presentation, you should include your references or in-text citations on each slide.  In-text citations for slides are formatted the same way as in research papers. 

You can also provide citations during your presentation verbally, by providing a reference list slide at the end of your presentation with corresponding in-text citations or combining verbal and written citations.

For any presentation, be sure your audience knows where the information, visuals, and other materials you use are from. Remember to double-check the assignment requirements and your instructor’s preferences.

Reference Slide Format

Reference Slides are formatted the same way as Reference Pages with a few minor differences:

  • Center References on the final slide.
  • Single space the entries.
  • Do not use a hanging indent.

For examples of presentation citations, and tips on using images in presentations, check out the Nuts & Bolts for Power Point blog.

Indigenous Community Citations

Citing Indigenous Elders & Knowledge Keepers

Templates for culturally responsive citation for the variation of knowledge across indigenous communities.