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Psychology (Seaver)

OWL Research & Citation Guides

APA Citations

Presentation Citations

Verbal Citations

Verbal Citations add credibility to your speeches and properly give credit to others for their work and ideas.  Mentioning ideas and facts that are not your own within your speech, without verbally citing them, is plagiarism.

Creating a Verbal Citation:

Verbal Citations shouldn't interrupt the flow of your speech.  Use an introductory phrase and keep them brief but include the important "who, what, when" details:

  • author name
  • author credentials
  • title of work (article, book, report, etc.)
  • date of work (if relevant)
Verbal Citation Examples:

"According to Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences president, Jim Bailey, ..."

"In 2014, Maureen Russell, an ethnomusicologist at UCLA, wrote ..."


Slide Citations

To cite your sources within a PowerPoint or Google Slides presentation, you should include your references or in-text citations on each slide.  In-text citations for slides are formatted the same way as in research papers. 

You can also provide citations during your presentation verbally, by providing a reference list slide at the end of your presentation with corresponding in-text citations or combining verbal and written citations.

For any presentation, be sure your audience knows where the information, visuals, and other materials you use are from. Remember to double-check the assignment requirements and your instructor’s preferences.

Reference Slide Format

Reference Slides are formatted the same way as Reference Pages with a few minor differences:

  • Center References on the final slide.
  • Single space the entries.
  • Do not use a hanging indent.

For examples of presentation citations, and tips on using images in presentations, check out the Nuts & Bolts for Power Point blog.

Citation Management Systems