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FRE 348 French Literature II: Chicago Citation Style

A survey of French literature of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

Chicago Style Manuals

How Do I Do That?

Tip: click the '[  ]' in bottom right corner of screen to enlarge to full screen then press 'Esc' to minimize.

  • For Mac tutorial click HERE (footnote) & HERE (cover page)
  • For a quick PC tutorial on inserting footnotes click HERE
    • For detailed PC formatting tutorial click below:

Citing the Bible

  • NO Need for Bibliography Entry- w hen citing sacred books like the Bible you do not need to include the work in the bibliography just the foot/endnote or parenthetical note.
  • Formatting- the note should include the abbreviated name of the book, Chapter number and verse number BUT never the page number.
  • Bible Versions- Also includes the version you are using with the spelled out name or accepted abbreviation.
    • 2 Cor. 11:8 (New Revised Standard Version) 
    • 2 Cor. 12: 1 (NRSV)

Information taken from: A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 7th edition.

Parenthetical Notes

The Chicago Manual of Style "author-date" documentation system is less commonly used BUT if your professor wants you to us it here are some things to know:

  • Placement-  the parenthetical citation (PC) where the reference number would have gone (at the end of the quote, sentence, or clause). 
  • Punctuation- PC is inserted before the comma or period EXCEPT for block quotes when the PC follows the punctuation.
    • "It was the best of times, it was the worst of times..." (Dickens, A Tale of Two Cities, 3). 
    • block quote: It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of light, it was the season of darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair. (Dickens, A Tale of Two Cities, 3) 
  • Format-Authors last name, Title, page # 
    • Dickens, A Tale of Two Cities, 3 
  • If your professor allows you to shorten the PC after your initial entry you have 3 options:
    • page number only (3)
    • Author's last name & page number (Dickens, 3) 
    • Title (you can create a shortened version of the title) & pager number (Cities, 3-5)


Information taken from A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 7th edition.

Chicago Style

The Chicago Manual of Style presents two basic documentation systems:

  1. notes and bibliography
  2. author-date (parenthetical citations).

  1)  The notes and bibliography (NB) style is preferred by many in the humanities, including those in literature, history, and the arts. This style presents bibliographic information in notes and, often, a bibliography.

 2) The author-date system has long been used by those in the physical, natural, and social sciences. In this system, sources are briefly cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by author’s last name and date of publication. The short citations are amplified in a list of references, where full bibliographic information is provided.

*If you are asked to use Chicago NB format, be sure to consult The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition, and/or A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 7th edition.

Using the Giude:

  • Examples are usually highlighted in red.
  • Some sentences use Lorem ipsum or dummy text.
  • When this "(How Do I Do That Video) " appears by an example then an accompanying demonstration video is available in the "How Do I DO That?" box on this page.

Information taken from Chicago Manual of Style Online guide

Paper Formatting Guidelines

What Information is on the Cover Page- What are Footnotes, Do I need a Bibliography, When Do I Us "Ibid." and How, etc? 

Formatting Guidelines- tell users how to format the paper.

 Formatting- Quick Reference:

Title Page- Includes:


 Jenny Jones
      Art 100
Professor Smith
16 April, 2013

Cover page example

Header- Chicago does not provide guidelines for the use of headings.

Page # - In top right-hand corner of every page after the cover page place your last name and page number. Example: Jones 1

Footnotes and Endnotes Endnotes and the 1st footnote entry are formatted the same way (see “Formatting- Quick Reference Cont. FOOTNOTESbox for more info.). Footnote Vs. Endnote - if your Professor or department doesn't specify a preferred format use footnotes. It is easier for the reader to look at the bottom of page instead of stopping and flip to the back of the paper every time they want to check the citation. (How Do I Do That Video) 

 Bibliography appears at the end of the paper and lists every work you have cited (you may include works that you consulted but did not cite) arrange alphabetically by author or editors last name. All lines after the fist are indented. Format:  

  1. Last name, first name.
  2. Title of Book is italicized and only key words are capitalized  
  3. Publisher’s name, year.

Example:  Brown, Raymond Edward. An Introduction to the New Testament. New York: Doubleday, 1997.

(note: you may add full-sentence annotations describing the work's relevance.)

Quotes longer than 4 lines?You can choose to create a block quote by indenting one-half inch (one "tab" key). Then enter the quote double space and without quotations and with citation number at the end of the quote. You must create a block quote for ten or more lines. Example (scroll to page 11)
Quotes & Punctuation - ...the end."[1]
Punctuation- precedes citation number. Example:the end.[2]

Information taken from A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 7th edition.

Formatting- Quick Reference Cont. FOOTNOTES

What is the difference between the 1st Footnote/Endnote entry and Bibliography entry?


      12. Raymond Edward Brown. An introduction to the New Testament. (New

York: Doubleday, 1997), #.


 Brown, Raymond Edward. An Introduction to the New Testament. New

        York: Doubleday, 1997.

Footnotes: You will most likely be allowed to enter the full bibliographic data, or complete citation, in the first note then a shortened version in subsequent notes.  (How Do I Do That Video) 

  • First Entry- note number.
    • Autheor's First and Last names,  Title of Book: Subtitle of Book, Editor's Fist and Last name (place of publication: Publishers name, date of publication). page number 
  • Shortening Notes- this should provide enough information so the reader can find the full citation in the first note or bibliography.
    • Author Only    12. Brown, iixv.
    • Author & Title  20. Lee, "Life Cycle of Water," 264.
    • Title Only-when there is no author. 
  • Ibid - from the Latin ibidem meaning "in the same place." Use ibid when the bibliographical data appears in the immediately previous note.
14. Pollan, Omnivore’s Dilemma, 3.
15. Ibid., 76 
16. Ibid. (no page number needed because its the same page)
  • Complex Notes- Don’t use more than one reference number to identify several sources (for example this is wrong[1],[2]). Instead, list all the sources in one note by separating the list of source with a semi-colon( ; ).

Catalog Citation Tool

Subject Guide

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Payson Library
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Citation Guidelines

  How Do I Cite Webpages, Interviews, and Books with Multiple Authors etc.?

Citation Style Guides explain how to cite any of the aforementioned sources and more:

Chicago Citation Generators

Its good practice to double check citations provided with articles or generated by machines. For example, the citation machine may be using and older edition of the style guide handbook.