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BA 352 Management Theory & Practice (James)

This guide will help with your research

Business citation templates

Use this guide for examples on how to cite business sources in Chicago style.

Introduction to Chicago Style

Sample Chicago Style paper

The OWL Purdue Chicago Stye website has a sample research paper in Chicago Style.

Footnotes: shortened versions of citations that appear at the bottom of each page

Bibliography: more complete citations that. appear at the end of the paper. The sources are listed alphabetically by the author's last name.

Paraphrasing, summarizing and direct quotes

ALWAYS include a footnote every time you incorporate a source into your paper. If you paraphrased, summarized or used a direct quote, it's necessary to cite the source.

Generally, you should paraphrase the majority of sources and only use direct quotes when the author used a particularly eloquent or powerful phrase.

Example of citing direct quotes less than 100 words:

In a study of job satisfaction, Andrade and Westover concluded “managers should consider how to encourage motivation as well as enhance work-life balance and work relations in order to realize the benefits of a satisfied workforce.”7

 Block quotes (for citations over 100 words):

This example is for illustrative purposes and there are very few instances that you should include direct quotes of over 100 words. In these situations use "blocked" quotes that are indented.

...there were many issues that resulted in job satisfaction for employees in nonprofit organizations and work-life balance was an important factor.

In reporting the results of their study, Andrade and Westover eloquently explained:

Generally speaking, nonprofit job roles may not be specifically designed to encourage intrinsic motivation. Rather the features that promote this motivation such as job meaningfulness, autonomy, connectedness, decision-making, organizational mission, and professional management practices are typically embedded in the culture of nonprofits. Historical, cultural, and contextual issues indicate varied practices in this area and comparative salary studies have dissimilar findings. Managers in nonprofits should be aware of factors that support intrinsic motivation and ensure that these characteristics are maintained or enhanced so that employees will continue to enjoy and value their work. Managers should also consider that education-job fit is important to recruiting for nonprofits while stress and overwork must be addressed in terms of employee well-being. 8

Differences between footnotes and bibliography entries

Footnotes: shortened versions of citations that appear at the bottom of each page

  • Use commas to separate authors, document titles, publication titles, dates, URL's, etc.
  • With personal authors, the format is first name last name.
  • Pages numbers (when available should be included).

Bibliography: more complete citations that. appear at the end of the paper. The sources are listed alphabetically by the author's last name.

  • Uses periods to separate authors, titles, dates, URLs, etc.
  • With personal authors, the format is last name, first name

Shortened citations and ibid.

Shortened citations:

After you have already cited a source, in subsequent footnotes you should use a shortened version of the citation. In most cases, the last name of the author and the main title of the work cited will be used in the shortened citation.

1 Maureen S. Andrade and Jonathan H. Westover, “Comparative Job Satisfaction and Its Determinants in For-Profit and Nonprofit Employees Across the Globe,” American Journal of Management 20, no.1 (2020), https://doi:10.33423/ajm.v20i1.2752, pp. 46-47

2 Brislin, Richard, The Undreaded Job: Learning to Thrive in a Less-Than-Perfect Workplace (Westport: ABC-CLIO, 2010), 73-78, ProQuest Ebook Central.

3 Andrade and Westover, “Comparative Job Satisfaction,” 48.

4 Brislin, Undreaded Job, 80.



Previous versions of the Chicago style have recommended ibid. as an abbreviation for footnotes that cited the same source consecutively. The Chicago manual no longer recommends ibid. and now recommends abbreviated footnotes such as the following:

1 Brislin, Undreaded Job, 80.

2 Brislin, 80.

3 Brislin, 83.

SWOT Analysis

Nexis Uni:


1 GlobalData, “Albertson's LLC; GlobalData - SWOT Analysis,” July 12, 2020, Nexis Uni.


GlobalData. “Albertson's LLC; GlobalData - SWOT Analysis.” July 12, 2020. Nexis Uni.

Business Source Premier (MarketLine):


1 MarketLine, “McDonald’s SWOT Analysis,” p. 3, June 19, 2020, EBSCOhost.


MarketLine. “McDonald’s SWOT Analysis.” June 19, 2020. EBSCOhost.