Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
What is Chicago Style
Pepperdine University Libraries subscribe to the Chicago Manual of Style Online
The Chicago Manual of Style (CMS) covers a variety of topics from manuscript preparation and publication to grammar, usage, and documentation. These resources follow the sixteenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in September 2010.
There are two main styles:
- The Notes-Bibliography System (NB), which is used by those in literature, history, and the arts.
The Chicago NB system is most often used in humanities and provides writers with a system for referencing their sources through footnote or endnote citation in their writing and through bibliography pages.
As with any citation stystem using it correctly protects the writer from accusations of plagiarism. As mentioned earlier in this guide proper citation builds credibility to the paper by demonstrating accountability to source material.
- The Author-Date System, which is preferred in the sciences.
- In the Author-Date System each citation consists of two parts: the text citations, which provides brief identifying information within the text, and the reference list (list of sources used) which provides full bibliographic information.
Descriptions for Style Guides (Chicago)
Clements, J., Angeli, E., Schiller, K., Gooch, S., Pinkert, L. & Brizee, A., 2011.. "General format." The Purdue OWL, October 12. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/01//
Citation styles can be difficult to learn.
Here are links to guides for some of the most popular style guides.
Chicago Manual of Style
Turabian Guide for Writers
These Guides are from OWL, the Purdue Online Writing Lab.
Citation Guides: Works of Art and Images On-Line
Basic information you'll need:
• Artist’s name
• Title of the work
• Date it was created
• Repository, museum, or owner (in other words, where it is now located)
• City or country of origin
• Dimensions of the work
• Material or medium (oil on canvas, marble, found objects, etc.)
See: 14.235: Citing paintings, photographs, and sculpture
if you copied image in a book you'll need the books's information
If you found the image online, you will need an access date & the web site address
Online Citation Generators
TIP! Save time and avoid plagiarism--cite correctly and easily with APA, MLA or Chicago style!
Free Citation Creator for MLA, APA and Chicago/Turabian.
Manually enter information to generate MLA, APA and Chicago Style citations.
A free, easy-to-use tool to help you collect, organize, cite, and share your research sources.
Best Practices for Avoiding Plagiarism
are many ways to avoid plagiarism, including developing good research
habits, good time management, and taking responsibility for your own
learning. Here are some specific tips:
Don't procrastinate with your research and assignments.
research takes time. Procrastinating makes it likely you'll run out of
time or be unduly pressured to finish. This sort of pressure can often
lead to sloppy research habits and bad decisions. Plan your research
well in advance, and seek help when needed from your professor, from
librarians and other campus support staff.
Commit to doing your own work.
you don't understand an assignment, talk with your professor. Don't
take the "easy way" out by asking your roommate or friends for copies of
old assignments. A different aspect of this is group work. Group
projects are very popular in some classes on campus, but not all. Make
sure you clearly understand when your professor says it's okay to work
with others on assignments and submit group work on assignments, versus
when assignments and papers need to represent your own work.
Be 100% scrupulous in your note taking.
you prepare your paper or research, and as you begin drafting your
paper. One good practice is to clearly label in your notes your own
ideas (write "ME" in parentheses) and ideas and words from others (write
"SMITH, 2005" or something to indicate author, source, source date).
Keep good records of the sources you consult, and the ideas you take
from them. If you're writing a paper, you'll need this information for
your bibliographies or references cited list anyway, so you'll benefit
from good organization from the beginning.
Cite your sources scrupulously.
cite other people's work, words, ideas and phrases that you use
directly or indirectly in your paper. Regardless of whether you found
the information in a book, article, or website, and whether it's text, a
graphic, an illustration, chart or table, you need to cite it. When you
use words or phrases from other sources, these need to be in quotes.
Current style manuals, available at the Parks Library Help &
Information desk, will help you use a consistent means of citation. They
may also give further advice on avoiding plagiarism.
Understand good paraphrasing.
using synonyms or scrambling an author's words and phrases and then
using these "rewrites" uncredited in your work is plagiarism, plain and
simple. Good paraphrasing requires that you genuinely understand the
original source, that you are genuinely using your own words to
summarize a point or concept, and that you insert in quotes any unique
words or phrases you use from the original source. Good paraphrasing also requires that you cite the original source. Anything less and you veer into the dangerous territory of plagiarism.