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Formatting & Integrating Sources (Citation Styles)

This guide provides paper formatting tips and examples for integrating sources (in-text citations).

Difference between footnotes and bibliography entries:

Footnotes: shortened versions of citations that appear at the bottom of each page

  • Use commas to separate authors, document titles, publication titles, dates, URL's, etc.
  • With personal authors, the format is first name last name.
  • Pages numbers (when available should be included).

Bibliography: more complete citations that. appear at the end of the paper. The sources are listed alphabetically by the author's last name.

  • Uses periods to separate authors, titles, dates, URLs, etc.
  • With personal authors, the format is last name, first name
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How To Add Footnotes

What Footnotes Look Like

Integrating Sources

  • Citing a Source from Within Another Source

Sometimes you find sources citing other other sources.  You always want to cite the original sources that first reported the content; however, sometimes you can't access the original sources because it is out of print, not available, or only available in a language you don't understand and all you have is the secondary source's quotes.  When you can't find the primary source , read it, and cite it (which best practice) then you need to cite the secondary source while giving credit to the original. 

Provide the citation for the original sources fallowed by "quoted in" and the citation for the secondary sources.

The example below is an article (Zukofsky's article) referenced in a book (Costello's book):


     1. Louis Zukofsky, "Sincerity and Objectification," Poetry 37 (February 1931): 269, quoted in Bonnie Costello, Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981), 78.


Zukofsky, Louis. "Sincerity and Objectification." Poetry 37 (February 1931): 269. Quoted in Bonnie Costello, Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981).

The example above was taken from Simon Fraser University Library Research Guide owned by Ania Dymarz