Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
InfoGuides | Pepperdine Libraries

FYS- Various Aliases of Information (Colvin): Citation

This guide provides helpful information.

Giving Credit

Quoting, Paraphrasing and Summarizing

Quotations must be identical to the original, using a narrow segment of the source. They must match the source document word for word and must be attributed to the original author.

Paraphrasing involves putting a passage from source material into your own words. A paraphrase must also be attributed to the original source. Paraphrased material is usually shorter than the original passage, taking a somewhat broader segment of the source and condensing it slightly.

Summarizing involves putting the main idea(s) into your own words, including only the main point(s). Once again, it is necessary to attribute summarized ideas to the original source. Summaries are significantly shorter than the original and take a broad overview of the source material.

Citation Styles

Academic Dishonesty

What is Academic Integrity?

As a student and member of the Pepperdine community, you are here to get an education and are therefore, expected to demonstrate integrity in all of your academic endeavors.  You are evaluated on your own merits, so be proud of your accomplishments, and protect academic integrity at Pepperdine.

There are different forms of Academic Dishonesty:

  • Cheating:“I copied off of someone else’s exam.”
  • Fabrication:“I made up the results for that lab exercise”
  • Plagiarism:“ I didn’t write that part of my paper – I just cut and pasted the text directly from the Web.”
  • Multiple submissions:“ I submitted the same paper for two of my classes.”
  • Facilitating Academic Dishonesty:“I let my roommate copy my homework – it’s no big deal.”

Are you guilty?

When to Quote, Summarize, & Paraphrase.

Why use quotations, paraphrases, and summaries?

Quotations, paraphrases, and summaries serve many purposes. You might use them to:

  • Provide support for claims or add credibility to your writing
  • Refer to work that leads up to the work you are now doing
  • Give examples of several points of view on a subject
  • Call attention to a position that you wish to agree or disagree with
  • Highlight a particularly striking phrase, sentence, or passage by quoting the original
  • Distance yourself from the original by quoting it in order to cue readers that the words are not your own
  • Expand the breadth or depth of your writing

When Do I Give Credit to a Source?

Give credit to your source in all of the following situations:

  • You directly quote a source. 
  • You borrow an idea from a source.
  • You paraphrase or summarize a source.
  • If you gain information from interviewing a person or from a class lecture.
  • When you use diagrams, illustrations, or other images that you did not create yourself.
  • Radio broadcasts, movies, podcasts.
  • Things that are not common knowledge. Always ere on the safe side                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

Is there anything I don't need to cite?

You do not need to cite any of the following types of information:

  • Your own ideas and experiences.
  • Common knowledge. Be careful here. If you're in doubt, cite it.
  • Results of lab experiments that you gathered yourself.
  • Your own artwork, illustrations, diagrams, etc.
  • Generally accepted facts: eating too much will make you gain weight, sugar causes cavities

What is Plagiarism?

The presentation of another’s words or ideas as if they were your own without giving credit to the other person, including but not limited to:

  • Purchasing a paper on-line and submitting it as your own

  • Copying your roommate’s paper (or parts of it) and submitting it as your own

  • Paraphrasing ideas, data or writing from someone else’s work without properly acknowledging the original source

  • Unauthorized transfer and use of another person’s computer file as your own


Citation are used to ...