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InfoGuides | Pepperdine Libraries

BA 474: International Marketing (Bauer): Chicago Style footnotes and bibliographies

This guide will help you with your research.

Sample Chicago Style paper

The OWL Purdue Chicago Stye website has a sample research paper in Chicago Style.

Footnotes: shortened versions of citations that appear at the bottom of each page

Bibliography: more complete citations that. appear at the end of the paper. The sources are listed alphabetically by the author's last name.

Paraphrasing, summarizing and direct quotes

ALWAYS include a footnote every time you incorporate a source into your paper. If you paraphrased, summarized or used a direct quote, it's necessary to cite the source.

Generally, you should paraphrase the majority of sources and only use direct quotes when the author used a particularly eloquent or powerful phrase.

Example of citing direct quotes less than 100 words:

In a study of job satisfaction, Andrade and Westover concluded “managers should consider how to encourage motivation as well as enhance work-life balance and work relations in order to realize the benefits of a satisfied workforce.”7

 Block quotes (for citations over 100 words):

This example is for illustrative purposes and there are very few instances that you should include direct quotes of over 100 words. In these situations use "blocked" quotes that are indented.

...there were many issues that resulted in job satisfaction for employees in nonprofit organizations and work-life balance was an important factor.

In reporting the results of their study, Andrade and Westover eloquently explained:

Generally speaking, nonprofit job roles may not be specifically designed to encourage intrinsic motivation. Rather the features that promote this motivation such as job meaningfulness, autonomy, connectedness, decision-making, organizational mission, and professional management practices are typically embedded in the culture of nonprofits. Historical, cultural, and contextual issues indicate varied practices in this area and comparative salary studies have dissimilar findings. Managers in nonprofits should be aware of factors that support intrinsic motivation and ensure that these characteristics are maintained or enhanced so that employees will continue to enjoy and value their work. Managers should also consider that education-job fit is important to recruiting for nonprofits while stress and overwork must be addressed in terms of employee well-being. 8

Difference between footnotes and bibliography entries

Footnotes: shortened versions of citations that appear at the bottom of each page

  • Use commas to separate authors, document titles, publication titles, dates, URL's, etc.
  • With personal authors, the format is first name last name.
  • Pages numbers (when available should be included).

Bibliography: more complete citations that. appear at the end of the paper. The sources are listed alphabetically by the author's last name.

  • Uses periods to separate authors, titles, dates, URLs, etc.
  • With personal authors, the format is last name, first name

Shortened citations and ibid.

Shortened citations:

After you have already cited a source, in subsequent footnotes you should use a shortened version of the citation. In most cases, the last name of the author and the main title of the work cited will be used in the shortened citation.

1 Maureen S. Andrade and Jonathan H. Westover, “Comparative Job Satisfaction and Its Determinants in For-Profit and Nonprofit Employees Across the Globe,” American Journal of Management 20, no.1 (2020): 46-47, https://doi:10.33423/ajm.v20i1.2752.

2 Brislin, Richard, The Undreaded Job: Learning to Thrive in a Less-Than-Perfect Workplace (Westport: ABC-CLIO, 2010), 73-78, ProQuest Ebook Central.

3 Andrade and Westover, “Comparative Job Satisfaction,” 48.

4 Brislin, Undreaded Job, 80.

ibid.

Previous versions of the Chicago style have recommended ibid. as an abbreviation for footnotes that cited the same source consecutively. The Chicago manual no longer recommends ibid. and now recommends abbreviated footnotes such as the following:

1 Brislin, Undreaded Job, 80.

2 Brislin, 80.

3 Brislin, 83.

Scholarly articles

Online:

N:

              1. Maureen S. Andrade and Jonathan H. Westover, “Comparative Job Satisfaction and Its Determinants in For-Profit and Nonprofit Employees Across the Globe,” American Journal of Management 20, no.1 (2020): 46-47, https://doi:10.33423/ajm.v20i1.2752.

B:

Andrade, Maureen S., and Jonathan H. Westover. “Comparative Job Satisfaction and Its Determinants in For-Profit and Nonprofit Employees Across the Globe.” American Journal of Management 20, no. 1 (2020): 46–63. https://doi:10.33423/ajm.v20i1.2752.

 

Print:

N:

              1. Robin Bauwens, Mieke Audenaert, and Adelien Decramer, ““Fostering Societal Impact and Job Satisfaction: The Role of Performance Management and Leader–member Exchange,” Public Management Review 21, no. 10 (October): 1486–1515.

B:

Bauwens, Robin, Mieke Audenaert, and Adelien Decramer. “Fostering Societal Impact and Job Satisfaction: The Role of Performance Management and Leader–member Exchange.” Public Management Review 21, no. 10 (October): 1486–1515.

Websites

These guidelines *don't* refer to eBooks and databases from the Pepperdine Libraries. These examples are for free websites. You only provide the date accessed if you can't located any information about when the document was published/updated.

N:

               1. Rakesh Kochhar, “The financial risk to U.S. business owners posed by COVID-19 outbreak varies by demographic group,” Pew Research Center, April 23, 2020, https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2020/04/23/the-financial-risk-to-u-s-business-owners-posed-by-covid-19-outbreak-varies-by-demographic-group/.

B:

Kochhar, Rakesh. “The financial risk to U.S. business owners posed by COVID-19 outbreak varies by demographic group.” Pew Research Center. April 23, 2020. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2020/04/23/the-financial-risk-to-u-s-business-owners-posed-by-covid-19-outbreak-varies-by-demographic-group/.

N:

             1. Albertsons Companies, “Sustainability,” Albertsons Companies, accessed August 24, 2020, https://www.albertsonscompanies.com/our-values/sustainability.html.

B:

Albertsons Companies. “Sustainability.” Albertsons Companies. Accessed August 24, 2020. https://www.albertsonscompanies.com/our-values/sustainability.html.

Social media

In most cases you only need to provide footnotes for social media references.

Twitter:

N:

           1. National Science Foundation (@NSF), “The ancient Japanese art form, origami, may advance products from soft robotics to medical devices to energy harvesters,” Twitter, August 8, 2020, 6:04 a.m., https://twitter.com/NSF/status/1292084156688629761.

B:

National Science Foundation (@NSF). The ancient Japanese art form, origami, may advance products from soft robotics to medical devices to energy harvesters.” Twitter, August 8, 2020, 6:04 a.m. https://twitter.com/NSF/status/1292084156688629761.

Facebook:

N:

          1. Coldplay, “Performing at Paralympic Games 2012 with Rihanna, JAY-Z & Paraorchestra was one of our proudest moments,” Facebook, August 20, 2020, https://www.facebook.com/coldplay/posts/10163944397885253.

B:

Coldplay. “Performing at Paralympic Games 2012 with Rihanna, JAY-Z & Paraorchestra was one of our proudest moments.” Facebook, August 29, 2020. https://www.facebook.com/coldplay/posts/10163944397885253.

 

Newspaper articles

N:

           1. Sebastian Herrera, “Amazon Bets on Office-Based Work with Expansion in Major Cities,” The Wall Street Journal, August 18, 2020, https://www.wsj.com/articles/amazon-bets-on-office-based-work-with-expansion-in-major-cities-11597741203.

B:

Deo, Nisha. “Visiting Professor Lectures on Photographer.” The Wall Street Journal. August 18, 2020. https://www.wsj.com/articles/amazon-bets-on-office-based-work-with-expansion-in-major-cities-11597741203.

Entire book

Print book:

N:

               1. Stephen P. Robbins and Tim Judge, Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 14 ed. (New York: Pearson, 2018), 33-35.

B:

Robbins, Stephen P, and Tim Judge. Essentials of Organizational Behavior. 14th ed. New York: Pearson, 2018.

 

eBook (from library database):

N:

                 1. Brislin, Richard, The Undreaded Job: Learning to Thrive in a Less-Than-Perfect Workplace (Westport: ABC-CLIO, 2010), 73-78, ProQuest Ebook Central.

B:

Brislin, Richard. The Undreaded Job: Learning to Thrive in a Less-Than-Perfect Workplace. Westport: ABC-CLIO, 2010. ProQuest Ebook Central.

 

Google book:

N:

              1. Joseph A. Olmstead, Organizational Structure and Climate: Implications for Agencies: National Study of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Workers, Work, and Organizational Contexts (United States: Social and Rehabilitation Service), 23-31, https://www.google.com/books/edition/Organizational_Structure_and_Climate_Imp/wHTZP_2arEAC?hl=en&gbpv=0.

B:

Olmstead, Joseph A. Organizational Structure and Climate: Implications for Agencies: National Study of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Workers, Work, and Organizational Contexts. United States: Social and Rehabilitation Service, 1973. https://www.google.com/books/edition/Organizational_Structure_and_Climate_Imp/wHTZP_2arEAC?hl=en&gbpv=0.

Book chapters

Book Chapter (single-authored book):

N:

              1. Ryan Smerek, “Transformational Learning and the Mind as a Developing Author,” in Organizational Learning and Performance: The Science and Practice of Building a Learning Culture (New York: Oxford University Press, 2018), 56.

B:

Smerek, Ryan. “Transformational Learning and the Mind as a Developing Author.”  In Organizational Learning and Performance: The Science and Practice of Building a Learning Culture, 53-64. New York: Oxford University Press, 2018.

 

Book Chapter (edited book):

N:

            1. Michael Novak, ““Human Flourishing and the Bible” in Counting the Cost: Christian Perspectives on Capitalism, ed. Arthur Lindsley and Anne R. Bradley (Abilene: Abilene Christian University Press, 2017), 74.

B:

Novak, Michael. “Human Flourishing and the Bible.” In Counting the Cost: Christian Perspectives on Capitalism, edited by Arthur Lindsley and Anne R. Bradley, 67-94. Abilene: Abilene Christian University Press, 2017. 

Harvard Business Cases

Harvard Business Case (Printed):

N:

               1. Jose B. Alvarez and Natalie Kindred, “Impossible Foods,” HBS No. 520-046 (Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing, 2019), 4-5.

B:

Alvarez, Jose B. and Natalie Kindred. “Impossible Foods.” HBS No. 520-046. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing, 2019.

 

Harvard Business Case (Online):

N:

               1. Jose B. Alvarez and Natalie Kindred, “Impossible Foods,” HBS No. 520-046 (Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing, 2019), 4-5, https://hbsp.harvard.edu/.

B:

Alvarez, Jose B. and Natalie Kindred. “Impossible Foods.” HBS No. 520-046. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing, 2019. https://hbsp.harvard.edu/.

SEC Filings and financial data

SEC filing from library database:

N:

             1. Albertson Companies Inc., February 29, 2020 Form 10-K (filed May 29, 2020), pp. 19-22, https://investor.albertsonscompanies.com/.

B:

Albertson Companies Inc. February 29, 2020 Form 10-K. Filed May 29, 2020. Mergent Online.

 

SEC filing from a website:

N:

              1. Albertson Companies Inc., February 29, 2020 Form 10-K (filed May 29, 2020), pp. 19-22, https://investor.albertsonscompanies.com/.

B:

Albertson Companies Inc. February 29, 2020 Form 10-K. Filed May 29, 2020. https://investor.albertsonscompanies.com/.

 

Mergent Online financial data:

N:

              1. Mergent, “Albertsons Companies Inc. Company Financials: Income Statement 2016-2020,” accessed August 21, 2020, Mergent Online.

B:

Mergent. “Albertsons Companies Inc. Company Financials: Income Statement 2016-2020.” Accessed August 21, 2020. Mergent Online.

N:

              1. Mergent, "Albertsons Ratio Comparison Report with Peers: 2016-2020," accessed August 21, 2020, Mergent Online

B:

Mergent. "Albertsons Ratio Comparison Report with Peers: 2016-2020." Accessed August 21, 2020. Mergent Online.

PrivCo:

N:

              1. PrivCo, “Tender Greens,” accessed August 22, 2020, PrivCo.

B:

PrivCo. “Tender Greens.” Accessed August 22, 2020. PrivCo.

Industry reports/Market reports

IBISWorld:

N:

             1. Cecilia Fernandez, “Supermarkets & Grocery Stores in the US,” pp. 22-24, May 2020, IBISWorld.”

B:

Fernandez, Cecilia. “Supermarkets & Grocery Stores in the US.” May 2020. IBISWorld.

Mintel:

N:

               1. John Owen, “Grocery Retailing: Incl Impact of COVID-19 - US - April 2020,” p. 24, April 2020, Mintel.

B:

Owen, John. “Grocery Retailing: Incl Impact of COVID-19 - US - April 2020.” April 2020. Mintel.

Passport:

N:

               1. Euromonitor, “Supermarkets in the US,” p. 4, March 2020, Passport.

B:

Euromonitor, “Supermarkets in the US.” March 2020. Passport.

Business Source Premier (MarketLine):

N:

               1. MarketLine, “Food Retail in the United States,” pp. 12-17, August 2015, EBSCOhost.

B:

MarketLine. “Food Retail in the United States.” August 2015. EBSCOhost.

S&P Net Advantage:

N:

                1. Arun Sundaram and Jia.Y.Young, “U.S. Food. & Staples Retailing,” p. 12, June 2020, S&P Net Advantage.

B:

Sundaram, Arun and Jia Y. Young. “U.S. Food & Staples Retailing.” June 2020. S&P Net Advantage.

Statista:

N:

                1. Brick Meets Click, "Sales of grocery delivery and pickup in the United States in August 2019 and March to June 2020 (in billion U.S. dollars),” chart, July 6, 2020, Statista.

B:

Brick Meets Click. "Sales of grocery delivery and pickup in the United States in August 2019 and March to June 2020 (in billion U.S. dollars)." Chart. July 6, 2020. Statista.

Investment Reports

ThomsonONE:

N:

                1. John Heinbockel, Steven Forbes, and Stephen Kovalsky, “Albertsons Companies Inc: ACI - BUY - The Refinancing Begins—$47 Million of Savings Worth $0.06 in EPS; Remain BUY,” Guggenheim, August 11, 2020, pp. 4-5, ThomsonONE.

B:

Heinbockel, John, Steven Forbes, and Stephen Kovalsky. “Albertsons Companies Inc: ACI - BUY - The Refinancing Begins—$47 Million of Savings Worth $0.06 in EPS; Remain BUY.” Guggenheim. August 11, 2020. ThomsonONE.