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GSSO 199.02: Interpersonal Relationships and Communication (Scott-Lowe): APA Citation Style

This research guide will point you toward print/online research resources and strategies available to you for your research assignment.

How to Write a Reference When Info is Missing

In-Text Citation Quick Reference

Example 1: Vandenberg and Smith (2002) reported that “the current state of the treatment for processing deficits in american public schools is similar to the state of the treatment of processing deficits in Finland from several decades ago” (p. 600).

Ex 2: Currently,  the  method used in American public schools to treat processing deficits is similar to the treatments used in Finland several decades ago (Vandenberg & Smith, 2002, p.600).

1 Author: use the Authors last name the date of publication.

(Vandenberg, 2008, p.12)

 2 Authors: name both authors every time. Use an ‘&’ between the names

(Wegener & Petty, 1998, p.84)

Note: use the word “and” between the authors name when mentioning them within the text. Research by Wegener and Petty (1998) supports...

 3-5 Authors: list all the author’s last names the 1st time you cite the source. Use the ‘&.’

(Kernis, Cornell, Sun, Berry, & Harlow, 1993, p.764 )

In subsequent citation use the first author last name then “et al.” and the date of publication.
(Kernis et al., 1993, p.12)

6 or more Authors: Use only the first author’s last name and “et al.”

Use the first author's name followed by “et al.” in the signal phrase or in parentheses.

(Harris et al., 2001, p.3)

Note: in text use the first author’s last name followed by “et al.” and the date of publication in parentheses:  Harris et al. (2001) argued...

No page number! Use the paragraph numbers by using the abbreviation "para." (McLee, 1999, para. 6 ).


Information taken from Purdue OWL:APA Formatting and Style

6th Ed. APA Manual

Citation Guidelines