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Academic Integrity and Citation Styles: The Why and How of Citing

When Should You Cite?

  • When you summarize someone else’s work

  • When you use the author’s exact words (include the page number of the original source)

  • When you use information you found in any outside source (including the Web); anything which is not your OWN original thought

  • Facts that are not common knowledge


When in doubt, CITE!

Why is Citing Important?

To add credibility and support for your ideas!

“1. to ensure the accuracy of scientific and scholarly knowledge, and
 2. to protect intellectual property rights.”

Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.(2001). 5th ed. Washington, D.C.: APA, p. 348.



Restating, in your own words, the author’s words or ideas


To simplify or clarify the original text

To demonstrate comprehension of original source


**Paraphrasing Tips**

Rewrite it using your own words

Rewrite it using your own sentence structure

Quote distinctive words or phrases taken from the original source

Accurately represent the author

Always cite the source of your information


Source for Quoting, Summarizing and Paraphrasing: Avoiding Plagiarism: Strategies & Resources presentation by Patti Caravello



Using the Author’s exact words


Use “quotation marks” to mark someone else’s words


  •      To support or add credibility to your arguments.

  •      When the original is difficult to rephrase.

  •      When original wording is great!



Condensed/distilled version of the author’s words or ideas


To include only main points of the original text


Tip: A summary is shorter than a paraphrase and covers main points only